Nicholas Downing is a third year medical student at Yale University School of Medicine. Nicholas’ current research aims to use the Food and Drug Administration as a lens for assessing the effectiveness of regulators in the United States today. His recent work, which compared the speed with which various drug regulators review new drug applications, has been published in the New England Journal of Medicine. This work provided objective data that informed the debate surrounding the renewal of the Prescription Drug User Fee Act, an important law that governs the Food and Drug Administration, last summer. His other research interests include pharmaceutical policy and the effect of conflicts of interest on medical practice. He was named to the 2012 Forbes 30 Under 30 in Science and Healthcare. Prior to starting at Yale, Nicholas was an Engagement Manager in McKinsey & Company’s New York Office. He graduated from Harvard College in 2007 magna cum laude with an A.B. in chemistry.