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Do Televised Presidential Ads Increase Voter Turnout? Evidence from a Natural Experiment.

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Krasno, Jonathan S., Donald P. Green

Research design: 
Data type: 
Survey, Administrative
Data source(s): 

1. Voting and population data were obtained at the county level and aggregated up to state-level media markets.
2. Voting data come from the America Votes series
3. (e.g., Scammon, McGillivray, and Cook 2001); population data from the 1990 and 2000 censuses and were interpolated for intervening election years to allow us to estimate turnout rates for these contests.
4. Information about the geographic boundaries of the media markets as they existed in 2000 was coded from Nielsen Media Research’s map of designated market areas during 2000–2001 (Nielsen 2001).
5. Information about presidential and vice-presidential visits to each media market come from Althaus, Nardulli, and Shaw (2002).
6. Voter contact data are derived from the 2000 Annenberg survey.
7. Television advertising data come from the Campaign Media Analysis Group (CMAG), a media-tracking firm that uses satellite technology to monitor television advertising.

Data source information: 

Suggested citation: “Krasno, Jonathan S., Donald P. Green (2008) replication Materials for ‘Do Televised Presidential Ads Increase Voter Turnout? Evidence from a Natural Experiment.’;;;;; ISPS Data Archive.”

Field date: 
June 1, 2000
Unit of observation: 
Media market by state (media zone)
Sample size: 
Since our analysis focuses on within-state variation, we exclude states containing a single media zone as well as states for which we have information about only one media zone. Thus, the Minneapolis-St. Paul market figures in our examination of Wisconsin and not Minnesota, because no other major media market reaches the latter. The advertising dataset we examine here covered advertising in the largest 75 markets in 2000, reaching approximately 78% of the population living in the 48 continental states (Johnston et al. 2004, 74).9 Given these constraints, the total number of observations here is 128.
Randomization procedure: 
N/A (the aim of the “regression discontinuity” approach used here is to capitalize on a data generation process that arbitrarily sorts voters within states into high- and low-exposure media zones.)
TV ads
Treatment administration: 
TV ads
Outcome measures: 
Turnout rate in 2000 general election
Archive date: 
Archive contributor: 
Limor Peer
Krasno, Jonathan S., Donald P. Green
Owner contact: 


Terms of use: 

Academic, non-commercial. See  /research-2/data/terms-of-use/

Area of study: 
Data file numbersort descending Description File format Size File url
D002F01 Dataset Stata (10.0) .dta 46080 Download file
D002F02 Dataset Excel (.csv) 59392 Download file
D002F03 Program file Stata (10.0) .do 9216 Download file
D002F04 Program file R (2.9.1.) .R 10240 Download file
D002F05 Codebook XML (1.1) .xml 55296 Download file
D002F06 Metadata record Adobe acrobat (8.0) .pdf 230400 Download file