Washington, Ebonya (2006) “How Black Candidates Affect Voter Turnout.” Quarterly Journal of Economics 121(3): 973-998. doi: 10.3368/jhr.XLI.1.106
Both Black and White voter turnout increases 2–3 percentage points with each Black Democrat on the ballot. Given the groups' representations in the population, the White response is numerically greater. Whites of both parties are less likely to vote for their parties' candidate when s/he is Black. The turnout findings are not explained away by voter, election, or politician characteristics. However, the fact that there is no turnout response to Black Republicans suggests that a perception of Blacks' ideology may be a factor.
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