Green, Donald P. (2004) "Mobilizing African-Americans using Direct Mail and Commercial Phone Banks: A Field Experiment." Political Research Quarterly 57(2): 245-255. doi: 10.1177/106591290405700206
This essay summarizes the results of a large-scale randomized experiment conducted during the 2000 election campaign by the NAACP National Voter Fund, which sought to mobilize African-American voters. Focusing solely on the direct mail and phone banking components of the NAACP-NVF campaign, this study examines the voting behavior of 980,208 participants residing in single-voter households, 1.7 percent of whom were randomly assigned to a control group. The experiment permits us to estimate (1) the extent to which the National Voter Fund s phone calls and direct mail increased voter turnout and (2) the approximate cost per vote. Within this sample, the NVF s two pieces of GOTV mail, three live phone calls, and two recorded phone calls had modest effects, generating approximately 7,100 additional votes at $158 per vote. The upper bound of a 90 percent confidence interval puts these figures at 16,214 additional votes at $69 per vote.
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