Deference, Dissent, and Dispute Resolution: An Experimental Intervention Using Mass Media to Change Norms and Behavior in Rwanda

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Suggested citation: 

Paluck, Elizabeth L., Donald P. Green (2009) Replication Materials for ‘Deference, Dissent, and Dispute Resolution: An Experimental Intervention Using Mass Media to Change Norms and Behavior in Rwanda.’ ISPS Data Archive.


Elizabeth Levy Paluck, Donald P. Green

Research design: 
Data type: 
Survey, focus groups, role playing, unobtrusive measures of collecive decision making
Data source(s): 


Data source information: 


Field date: 
June 1, 2004
Field Date: 
Location details: 
Unit of observation: 
Sample size: 
14 community sites; 556 individuals
We selected 14 research sites to represent salient political, economic, and ethnic categories of present-day Rwanda: two genocide survivor communities (mostly Tutsi), two Twa communities (the Pygmy minority), two prisons, and eight general population communities from the four general provincial regions of Rwanda. Because prison, survivor, and Twa communities are relatively scarce and scattered across the country, we worked through the prison system and Twa and survivor advocacy groups to obtain demographic, socioeconomic, and detainee characteristics (for the prisons) for a range of sites, and we chose the two most similar sites of each community type, even if they were located in different provinces... We chose each general population community site on the basis of its accessibility by paved or dirt road (we eliminated sites unavailable by road for logistical reasons), and on the quality of its demographic and socioeconomic match with another site in the region, a site far enough away that the communities did not share markets (to prevent spillover) but close enough to be similar on a range of characteristics. We used Rwandan census data to match the sites, including gender ratio, quality of dwellings, religion, and education level.
Randomization procedure: 
Matching pairs of sites. We randomly assigned one site in each pair to listen to the reconciliation program, and the other to the health program.
We used a group-randomized design in which adults from a community listened together either to the treatment (reconciliation) program or to the control program (another entertainment-education radio soap opera about health and HIV). Forty adults within each community were randomly sampled from official lists of the population after stratifying for sex and age (18–30 and 30 and older). The sampling technique invited at most one person per family.
Treatment administration: 
Outcome measures: 
Changes in individual attitudes,perceived community norms,and deliberative behaviors
Archive date: 
Paluck, Elizabeth Levy, Donald P. Green
Owner contact: 


Terms of use: 

ISPS Data Archive: Terms of Use

Data file number Descriptionsort descending File format Size File url
D011F02 Dataset _main Stata (10.0) .dta 23552 Download file
D011F03 Dataset _table5 Stata (10.0) .dta 3072 Download file
D011F05 Dataset _table5 Excel .csv 1024 Download file
D011F16 Metadata (DDI 3.2) .xml 233149 Download file
D011F08 Program file _fullreplication R (2.9.1) .R 5120 Download file
D011F06 Program file _mainreplication Stata (10.0) .do 3072 Download file
D011F07 Program file _table5 Stata (10.0) .do 1024 Download file
D011F09 Program file _table5 R (2.9.1) .R 1024 Download file
D011F11 Supplementary materials _individualQ Adobe Acrobat (8.1) .pdf 133120 Download file
D011F10 Supplementary materials _pretestQ Adobe Acrobat (8.1) .pdf 11264 Download file