Study 1: United States - PA, Study 2: International
Study 1: 210, Study 2: 300
Study 1: Most of the subjects were students at Temple University, but a handful (n=10) was drawn from the broader community. Study 2: Amazon.com Mechanical Turk panel
Study 1: Reading mock newspapers articles. Bias-congruent condition read a one-sided argument in support of the risky choice framed negatively, counterargument condition read a one-sided argument in support of the risk-averse choice, and it was framed more positively, competing arguments condition were presented with both arguments and saw both frames. (+control group)Study 2: A two-sided argument about a political controversy surrounding a proposal to ban high school students from forming gay-straight alliance clubs, where they confronted both a pro and anti argument that was framed either in terms of losses or gains. Emotion was manipulated by asking subjects to view a series of pictures under the pretext that they were to “provide a descriptive tag for each image,” which is a common task in the Mechanical Turk environment.
Study 1: Attitudes toward developing a new flu vaccine,Study 2: Support for banning gay-straight alliance clubs