Information and Self-Enforcing Democracy: The Role of International Election Observation

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Suggested citation: 

Susan D. Hyde and Nikolay Marinov (2014), Replication Materials for ‘Information and Self-Enforcing Democracy: The Role of International Election Observation.’ ISPS Data Archive.


Nikolay Marinov, Susan D. Hyde

Research design: 
Data type: 
Data source(s): 

Authors; National Elections across Democracy and Autocracy (NELDA)

Data source information: 
Field date: 
October 1, 2006
Field Date: 
Location details: 
Unit of observation: 
Sample size: 
NELDA: 2,676 Protests: 150
The NELDA data set includes information on more than 2600 election events in 157 countries. This represents all independent states with a population greater than 500,000 between 1945 and 2006. All elections for national office are included. Referenda are generally excluded unless they are votes on the continued rule of a specific individual. Elections are excluded if electoral competition is not allowed and elections held in twenty-one long-term consolidated democracies are also excluded. Elections in which electoral competition is not allowed are defined as those in which there is no opposition, opposition is illegal, or there is no choice of candidate on the ballot.
Randomization procedure: 
Treatment administration: 
Outcome measures: 
Protest (a binary indicator equal to 1 if “there were riots and protests after the election” that “involved allegations of vote fraud”)
Archive date: 
Owner contact: 


Terms of use: 

ISPS Data Archive: Terms of Use

Data file numbersort descending Description File format Size File url
D104F02 ReadMe Adobe Acrobat (10.3) .pdf 41984 Download file
D104F03 Dataset - observers .csv 226304 Download file
D104F04 Dataset - ID .csv 1403904 Download file
D104F05 Dataset - independence year .csv 3072 Download file
D104F06 Dataset - protests and elections .csv 64512 Download file
D104F07 Dataset - prev election .csv 31744 Download file
D104F08 Dataset - WDI and GDP .csv 698368 Download file
D104F09 Dataset - observers Stata (12.0) .dta 225280 Download file
D104F10 Dataset - ID Stata (12.0) .dta 0 Download file
D104F11 Dataset - independence year Stata (12.0) .dta 0 Download file
D104F12 Dataset - protests and elections Stata (12.0) .dta 0 Download file
D104F13 Dataset - prev election Stata (12.0) .dta 31744 Download file
D104F14 Dataset - WDI and GDP Stata (12.0) .dta 720896 Download file
D104F21 Program file - datahelper Stata (12.0) .do 10240 Download file
D104F22 Program file - infotheory Stata (12.0) .do 13312 Download file
D104F23 Program file - master Stata (12.0) .do 3072 Download file
D104F24 Program file - labels Stata (12.0) .do 3072 Download file
D104F25 Supplementary materials - manifest .txt 1024 Download file
D104F26 Supplementary materials - NELDA codebook Adobe Acrobat (10.3) .pdf 266240 Download file
D104F27 Metadata (DDI 3.2) .xml 586275 Download file