1,925 (A); 793 (B); 1,579 (C); 139-159 (D)
Citizen samples (per CCES ) (A-C); Amazon Mechanical Turk subject recruitment via ad.State Legislators survey (D) survey was sent to all 7,000 state legislators via email in March 2012.
The different groups randomized to different vignettes.CCES (B, C): Respondents assigned, with equal probability, to one of the four treatment conditions.Amazon Mechanical Turk: (A): Vignettes were randomized in terms of which party controlled the legislature, and the information about the state and the party in control of the legislature.Legislators survey (D): The vignette signals, and randomly varies, how important passing the budget on time is for the party valence brand by reporting the results of a public opinion poll question. Respondents were randomly assigned to either see that 72% of voters answered yes (and 28% answered no) or see that only 18% of voters answered yes (and 82% answered no).
The studies of voters use treatments that include non-ideological information about a party's actions that affect the party valence brand, including good actions (such as passing the budget on time) and bad actions (such as being caught in a scandal), and vignettes with information about which party controls the legislature and information about the state and about the party in control of the legislature. The studies of state legislators use treatments that vary constituent support for the party and the likelihood that voters will punish voters for passing a budget on time.