The Causal Effects of Elite Position-Taking on Voter Attitudes: Field Experiments with Elite Communication

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Suggested citation: 

Broockman, David E. and Daniel M. Butler (2015). Replication Materials for, “The Causal Effects of Elite Position-Taking on Voter Attitudes,’ ISPS Data Archive.


Daniel Butler, David E. Broockman

Research design: 
Data type: 
Data source(s): 


Field date: 
June 15, 2013
Field Date: 
Location details: 
Unit of observation: 
Sample size: 
Study 1: N = 386 Study 2: N = 1,140
Voters in the districts of the cooperating state legislators.
Randomization procedure: 
We conducted baseline surveys of registered voters in each legislator’s district, querying their positions on their legislator’s four issues and their approval of their legislator. TargetSmart Communications provided the voter lists and Winning Connections conducted the surveys. When constituents already agreed with a legislator on all four issues, we dropped them from the study. Less than five percent of the subjects fell in this category.
Receiving a position-taking letter or not and, in the second study, in what manner this position was justified.
Treatment administration: 
(Mail) Cooperating state legislators randomized the letters they sent out to constituents. Legislators sent the assigned letters from their legislative offices, on their official letterhead, and in envelopes clearly marked as coming from the state capitol
Outcome measures: 
1) Opinion agreement with legislator 2) Approval of legislator
Archive date: 
Owner contact: 


Terms of use: 

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Area of study: 
Data file number Description File formatsort descending Size File url
D138F004 Data file - study 1 .csv 297691 Download file
D138F005 Data file - study 2 .csv 467261 Download file
D138F012 Curator program file .do 1180 Download file
D138F007 Supplementary Materials - codebook .rtf 28672 Download file
D138F001 ReadMe file .txt 2048 Download file
D138F011 Curator readme .txt 7778 Download file
D138F013 Metadata (DDI 3.2) .xml 576089 Download file
D138F006 Program file Stata 13 .do 30720 Download file
D138F002 Data file - study 1 Stata 13 .dta 583105 Download file
D138F003 Data file - study 2 Stata 13 .dta 603383 Download file